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Implementation Objectives for State, Local, Tribal, and Territorial Jurisdictions. FEMA is ending the program on June 30 for Hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria survivors. A New Vision for Emergency Management. This article needs additional citations for verification. Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry’s small arms. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour.

By association, artillery may also refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines. In some armies one arm has operated field, coast, anti-aircraft artillery and some anti-tank artillery, in others these have been separate arms and in some nations coast has been a naval or marine responsibility. Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry, cavalry and other artillery. An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships. The early 20th century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft: anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament currently employed, and has been since at least the early Industrial Revolution. The majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars, World War I, and World War II were caused by artillery.

Gun on a Moncrieff disappearing mount, at Scaur Hill Fort, Bermuda. This is a part of a fixed battery, meant to protect against over-land attack and to serve as coastal artillery. Although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity. Historical references show artillery was first employed by the Roman legions at Syracuse in 399 BC. From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages.

In some armies, the weapon of artillery is the projectile, not the equipment that fires it. The process of delivering fire onto the target is called gunnery. The actions involved in operating an artillery piece are collectively called “serving the gun” by the “detachment” or gun crew, constituting either direct or indirect artillery fire. The term “gunner” is used in some armed forces for the soldiers and sailors with the primary function of using artillery. 7-person gun crew firing a US M777 Light Towed Howitzer, War in Afghanistan, 2009. The gunners and their guns are usually grouped in teams called either “crews” or “detachments”.

Several such crews and teams with other functions are combined into a unit of artillery, usually called a battery, although sometimes called a company. In gun detachments, each role is numbered, starting with “1” the Detachment Commander, and the highest number being the Coverer, the second-in-command. Batteries are roughly equivalent to a company in the infantry, and are combined into larger military organizations for administrative and operational purposes, either battalions or regiments, depending on the army. The term “artillery” is also applied to a combat arm of most military services when used organizationally to describe units and formations of the national armed forces that operate the weapons. During military operations, the role of field artillery is to provide support to other arms in combat or to attack targets, particularly in depth.